Conspiracy and Lies for Sanctions: Chronology


Conspiracy and Lies for Sanctions: Chronology

  • May 25, 1999: ”We are very concerned by credible reports that Eritrea has delivered large quantities of weapons and munitions to self-proclaimed Somalia President Hussein Aideed for the use of a violent faction of the Oromo Liberation Front. The terrorist organization Al-Ittihad may also be an indirect recipient of these arms.” Susan E. Rice, Assistant Secretary for African ...
  • May 22, 2000: ”... they are also considering more severe sanctions, like limiting the ability of the Eritreans to collect remittances from friends and relatives in the United States.” US Did Little to Deter Buildup as Ethiopia and Eritrea Prepared for War
  • December 2003, “President Bush announced the cancellation of Eritrea's membership to AGOA, barely two years after its inclusion.”
  • April 13, 2004: “US Homeland Officers raided the Eritrean Community Centre in Washington D.C. and confiscated money and documents forcefully from the Eritrean diplomatic agent at gunpoint.” UNPROVOKED US HOSTILITIES AGAINST ERITREA
  • January 2006: “The US Assistant Secretary of State visited the occupied Eritrean town of Badme through Ethiopia and without the knowledge and authorization of Eritrea. In doing so, Ms. Frazer not only sanctioned Ethiopia's occupation of a sovereign Eritrean town, but to add insult to injury, she proposed that a ‘referendum’ be held to decide the future of ‘Badme’.“ UNPROVOKED US HOSTILITIES AGAINST ERITREA
  • June 6,2006: ”There are friends in the region, like the Ethiopians, who probably are feeding false intelligence about terrorists being hidden and that sort of thing, because the Ethiopians are deadly afraid of Moslem control and also they have their own Moslem problem among the Oromo ethnic group in Ethiopia. So they want to keep the Islamists out of power, and they will bring the U.S. into it, if they can.”Herman Cohen, PBS NewsHour  June 6, 2018
  • June 24, 2006: "I met on 24 June 2006 with Jendayi Frazer, U.S Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs in Addis Ababa. She regretted that the EEBC is not flexible. She told me that she has developed parallel tracks to deal with the matter. In her view, demarcation as Eritrea wants it is not feasible. She also said that the status quo would benefit Ethiopia and demarcation would not take place without dialogue."
  • September 10 2006: “Select Armor started its operation planning in Kampala, Uganda. The emails suggest that the Ugandan government were willing to help secure arms supplies for any operation.” SOMALIA: US accused of covert operations in Somalia | corpwatch
  • April 8, 2007: “Eritrea is fuelling the insurgency in Somalia in order to wage a proxy war against its arch-foe Ethiopia, according to the top US official for Africa. Jendayi Frazer, the assistant secretary of state for African affairs, said that Eritrea was the largest foreign backer of guerrillas who are fiercely resisting attempts by Ethiopia and the Somali government to pacify Mogadishu.’No insurgency group can survive without support from neighbouring countries....Certainly Eritrea is the country of greatest concern,’ she said. While The New York Times reported 4/7/2007 that the US allowed Ethiopia to buy arms from North Korea in January in contravention of a UN resolution sponsored by Washington.” US blames Eritrea over Somalian insurgency
  • September 18, 2007 “Eritrea has been fiercely independent from the moment the country broke off from Ethiopia in 1993. Back then, it was a darling of the West, considered the little-country-that-could and held up as a model of a crime-free, egalitarian African nation.” New York Times
  • August 17, 2007 - “The United States said it was considering putting Eritrea on its list of state sponsors of terrorism for allegedly funneling weapons to insurgents fighting the Ethiopian-backed government in Somalia.” US considers putting Eritrea on terrorism list
  • March 1, 2008: The targeted sanctions were also floated as retaliation to Eritrea’s expulsion of UNMEE ”... should assess the utility and level of support for targeted sanctions, and specifically which measures might be most successfully imposed and effectively implemented .... Potential options include:
  • Imposing a travel ban on key Eritrean government officials.
  • Placing an assets freeze on these same officials and/or other Eritrean assets/resources.
  • Imposing trade, investment, or other restrictions related to Eritrean resources, including mining. Imposing an arms embargo on Eritrea.” Wikileaks cable/2008/03/08 STATE
  • May 9, 2008: ”Prime Minister Meles underscored to USUN Ambassador Rice during a six-hour meeting ... Isaias’ calculations would be shattered, if the U.S. and others imposed financial sanctions on him and particularly cut off Isaias’ funding from Qatar and other countries and the important funding from the Diaspora in the U.S. Isaias still imposes a mandatory 2 percent of salary tax on all Eritreans living overseas. Non payment results in family members in Eritrea being denied food ration cards.” Wikileaks cable/2009/05/09 ADDIS ABABA
  • May 23, 2008 ”Eighty percent of ammunition available at the Somali arms markets was supplied by TFG and Ethiopian troops. The monitoring committee received details of some 25 military flights by Ethiopia into Somalia and knew that Ethiopian troops had brought military equipment into the country to arm friendly clans,Arms reach Somali warlords despite UN sanctions
  • May 23, 2008: ”Arms and military hardware are mainly transported to Somalia by boat and airplane, but traffickers also use horses and donkeys, making shipments difficult to trackboats often came from Yemen with goods for general trade and with weapons, (and) ... arms shipments were reaching Somalia at points along the entire coast.’ He also said Somalia’s business community was profiting as well from the general situation of lawlessness.’” Louis Charbonneau, Reuters, May 2008
  • May 23, 2008: Kumalo said the Somalia sanctions committee backed the idea of independent investigations of Somalia’s TFG, the Ethiopian government and AMISOM (for supplying arms to Somalia’s Al-shabab).
  • More than 75% of AMISOM troops are from Uganda.
  • The plane that Eritrea was supposed to have used to transport weapons and fighters to Somalia was found crashed in Uganda while being used by DynCorp, a contractor for the U.S. military and Intelligence service. Reuters
  • June 9, 2008: Djibouti accused Eritrea of making an incursion into its territory along Dumeira Mountain and Dumeira Island. The Dumeira Island lies close to the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, at the southern end of the Red Sea just off the coast of Eritrea and Djibouti. Eritrea’s response was that “The Eritrean government ... will under no circumstance get involved in an invitation of squabbles and acts of hostility designed to undermine good neighborliness,” Jon Abbink, a Horn of Africa analyst, said “It cannot be about the border ... I don’t see any reason to play up this problem of an unclear border except for ulterior motives.” Eritrea urged to withdraw from Djibouti border
  • June 12, 2008: ”A military source said French forces based in Djibouti had carried out a reconnaissance on Thursday at the government’s request but had not been able to confirm an incursion.” 
  • June 12, 2008: “The Arab League called on Eritrea to withdraw its forces immediately from the border area, stressing the need to respect Djibouti’s sovereignty.” The US also issued a statement condemning Eritrea’s “military aggression.”
  • June 19, 2008: The UN Security Council condemned “Eritrea’s military action against Djibouti.”  
  • June 24, 2008: ”Inner City Press obtained a copy of the pamphlet, which strangely is dated February 2008, before the conflict at issue. The timeline inside, however, contains Djibouti’s version of events, sometimes by the hour. On June 10 at 12:30, ’the Eritrean troops opened fire to stop (’empecher’) their soldiers from deserting, ’the Djiboutian presentation says. At 6:40 p.m., ’the hour of prayer,’ the Eritreans again opened fire, the pamphlet continues.” Inner City Press first raised the issue on June 26 itself, in print
  • August 6, 2009: The African Union asked the United Nations to impose sanctions on Eritrea.
  • June 9, 2009: ”A number of ambassadors accredited to Eritrea remain vocally skeptical about Eritrean support to al-Shabaab and its ilk. Should the USG and/or the international community take action against Eritrea or Eritreans for support of radical Somali Islamists, the Flat Denial will have to be punctured for any measures to be effective. ...Given the still low (but recovering) credibility of the USG in some quarters, simple public assertions that Eritrea is aiding radical Somali Islamists will not change many minds. ... Previous USG attempts to do so flopped. One skeptical Western ambassador in Eritrea this week commented, ’Are your claims of Eritrean support for al-Shabaab like those of Saddam’s WMD program?’.” Wikileaks cable/2009/06/09 ASMARA
  • June 9, 2009: ”Tekeda said cutting off the flow of money to Eritrea was essential. Particularly, remittances from the U.S. was a major source of funding for Eritrea, which used such funds for arms procurement and support for extremist elements. Having the UNSC firmly in support of the African Union and IGAD in condemning Eritrea would help the Eritrean community in the U.S. to justify diaspora non-payment of taxes (2 percent of salary) to the Eritrean government. Currently, those who do not pay, Tekeda asserted, face imprisonment upon return, and imprisonment of family members living in Eritrea.” Wikileaks cable/2009/06/09 ADDIS ABABA
  • August 6, 2009: "It is long past time for Eritrea to cease and desist its support of al-Shabab and to start being a productive rather than a destabilising neighbour. We are making it very clear that their actions are unacceptable. We intend to take action if they do not cease." Hillary Clinton threatens Eritrea action
  • September 29, 2009: ”Rice reminded Museveni that past experience suggested that the UNSC would not block a resolution led by African members and supported by the African Union.  She shared the  U.S. read that, if Burkina Faso and Uganda co-sponsor this resolution, the British will support, the French will ‘keep their heads down’ and will not block.  ...  Rice advised Kutesa not to be overly cautious, and reasserted that a resolution perceived to be African-led would not fail.  She noted that, if it became clear during consultations that Russia and China had insurmountable concerns about including Djibouti, they could be dealt with before the issue came to vote.Wikileaks cable/2009/09/09 USUN New York
  • November 18, 2009: ”European participants generally did not support sanctioning Eritrea,. ... The Italian representative questioned whether the sanctions should be focused on spoilers in general and include others beyond Eritrea. ... The Swedish representative agreed that pressure would be more useful than sanctions,... The UK representative agreed, adding that while the UK was still considering sanctions, ”a way out” for Asmara would have to be included. The EU representative saw the ’long arm of Ethiopia’ behind the sanctions initiative.” Wikileaks cable/2009/11/09 BERLIN
  • Dec. 14, 2009: “Allah has finally come to our rescue. ... We appealed to everyone to help us, but noone came. So finally we appealed to Allah. We asked him to give us oil, so as to interest the Americans, or else we said, we need a couple of fighters from Afghanistan. So now the Somalis have a weapon: We are a staging ground for the fight against global terrorism. After so many years, with our piracy and our jihad we are finally able to project fear.” The Most Failed State | The New Yorker
  • December 23, 2009: UNSC imposes sanctions on Eritrea under Resolution 1907(2009) it included an arms embargo, travel ban and targeted sanctions.
  • “Reason”- Support for Al- Shabaab;
  • Refusing to withdraw troops from “contested” Eritrea- Djibouti Border.
  • Resolution was tabled by Uganda and the UNSC proceedings were led by Burkina Faso. Resolution 1907(2009) was adopted by 13 votes:
  • In favor: USA, UK, Russia, France, Austria, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Croatia, Japan, Mexico, Turkey, Uganda and Vietnam
  • Against: Libya
  • Abstention: China
  • December 23, 2009: “I want to talk about the resolution we just adopted imposing sanctions on Eritrea. This was an African initiative. It was the consequence of a decision taken by the African Union… From the United States’ point of view, .., we do not see this as the door closing on Eritrea, but on the contrary, we view this as another opportunity for Eritrea to play a more responsible and constructive role in the region. We did not come to this decision with any joy.” -Susan Rice UN video
  • December 28, 2009: “They provided sanctuary to international criminals. It is a rogue state. We petitioned for sanctions on behalf of IGAD and it is gratifying that members of the UN Security Council adopted the resolution.” The minister observed that Eritrea tried to attack an IGAD member state, Djibouti, and recruited rebels to destabilise it. The two countries have a border dispute. “We are going to demand for more stringent sanctions from the international community against that country. It’s a spoiler.” Uganda blasts Eritrea
  • January 10, 2010: ”Recently, I heard similar mutterings in the UK Foreign office, there have been correspondence passing across desks to the effect that it really would not have mattered what Eritrea would have done. Eritrea is going to be punished for this....’Even though some voices in the UK Foreign Office were saying that this is a disastrous idea, sanctions should not go ahead. The push was coming from above somewhere. Ethiopia needs to be right. Ethiopia needs to be the stable center. Eritrea is now becoming, to be blunt, a pain in the ass. It will be punished. ... The US preferred Ethiopia. It preferred Ethiopia for all sorts of reasons. Eritrea was seen as a bunker state; they were less easy to control. ... Their policy was more directable and perhaps predictable. Whereas Eritrea, from the mid 1990s, it was clearly seen unpredictable and couldn’t be relied upon to do certain things that Washington might wanted to do.” Richard Reid, Eritrea’s External Relations, Wilson Center
  • January 21, 2010 ”The statement from international community saying that Eritrea is involved in the anarchy in Somalia is absolutely baseless, and the international community is blaming Eritrea out of nowhere, and it is all what it has fabricated.” Jama Mohammed Qalib
  • January 24, 2010: ”The report also accuses Uganda, Ethiopia and Yemen of supplying the TFG-outside of the United Nations regulatory regime, which has imposed an arms embargo on Somalia. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs recently- Uganda has offered TFG supplies in return for reimbursements from the State Department.” US-Uganda arms aiding Al-Shabaab
  1. In 2006 falsely claimed there were 2000 soldiers in Eritrea
  2. In 2008 falsely claimed Eritrea is arming al-shabab
  3. In 2011 Col. Gematchu Ayana, an alleged mastermind behind an attempted plot in Ethiopia, knowing well he was an Ethiopian army officer from Oromia, purposely claimed he was an Eritrean Officer
  4. Reported 80% of arms to terrorists in Somalia comes from Ethiopia, TFG and African Union Forces but never asked for sanctions against these.
  5. It claimed three Eritrean planes landed in Baidoa
  6. Presented forged serial numbers on MANIPADS from US database of weapons
  • June 2010: Eritrea and Djibouti agree to refer to Qatar for mediation and deployment of  its troops as observers.
  • July 20, 2010: Representative Ed Royce, urged US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to designate Eritrea a “state sponsor of terrorism”.  "The time to tackle state support of Shebab is now, before this menace becomes even more potent and reaches our shores. … That response must include an honest recognition of the destructive role the government of Eritrea is playing in the region by designating it as a state sponsor of terrorism. … Eritrea's support for Shebab is well documented." US Representative Ed Royce of California
  • July 20, 2010: "There is very little evidence to suggest that Eritrea has, or is currently, supporting al-Shabab," E.J. Hogendoorn, Director of the International Crisis Group.
  • December 05, 2011—UNSC- passes Resolution 2023(2011)
  • “Reason”  Eritrea destabilizing the HOA Region by using Diaspora Tax and the Mining sector financial source; transfer of arms by air through Baidoa; Djiboutian combatants
  • Meles as Chair of IGAD  participates in the discussion via a video-conference and states “ Eritrea is a prime source of instability for the whole region ….. we ask you to act and act decisively”.
  • IGAD actively involved in the drafting of the text Resolution tabled and co-sponsored by Gabon with Nigerian involvement
  • Other video conference participants
  • Ismael Omar Guelleh—Djibouti President
  • Sheik Sherif Sheik Ahmed—Somalia President
  • Moses Wetangula—Kenya’s FM
  • Mull Sebuja Katende—Uganda’s AU Ambassador
  • In favor: France, UK, USA, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Colombia, Germany, Gabo, India, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal , Union of South Africa
  • Abstentions: Russia and China
  • Against : None
  • December 5, 2011: ”The text of the resolution contains a range of provisions that lack adequate foundation, .... In that respect we refer in particular to the ’planned terrorist attack’ in Addis Ababa during the African Union summit there. The Russian Federation is categorically against terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. However, in this case, the Security Council was not presented with convincing proof of Eritrea’s involvement in that incident. We have not seen the results of any investigation of that incident, if indeed there was one. ...” The Late Russian UN Ambassador Vitaly Churkin
  • December 5, 2011: ”We call on the Monitoring Group to execute its responsibilities and mandate ... with professionalism, impartiality and objectivity. The Monitoring Group should never be influenced by political considerations outside of its mandate. It is important for the Monitoring Group to closely guard its independence and professionalism in the work it does to assist the Security Council with the implementation of those measures. Equally, we call upon the members of the Security Council to desist from any temptation to use the Monitoring Group for political ends.” South African UN Ambassador Mashabane
  • June 2012: After repeated politically motivated investigations by the SEMGs failed to provide any evidence of Eritrea’s involvement in Somalia, US  Administrators , their Allies in Europe and their puppet regime in Ethiopia concocted the human rights violations ruse  aimed at destabilizing the GOE and bringing about regime change.
  • October, 2012- The HRC appoints Ms. Sheila B. Keetharuth  as a Special Rapporteur on the  “situation of human rights  in Eritrea”
  • June, 2014 – The HRC establishes the Commission of Inquiry (COI) on Human Rights in Eritrea to supposedly “investigate systematic, widespread and gross violations of human rights in Eritrea with a view to ensuring full accountability, including whether violations amount to crimes against humanity ”
  • COI Members: Mike Smith from (Australia); Sheila B. Keetharuth (Mauritius); Victor Danka (Ghana
  • June 14, 2017: Qatar withdraws its troops from the region of conflict
  • July 9, 2018: “As Former Alternate Ambassador of Somalia to the UN who participated all discussions and meetings between UNSC and IGAD member states, I can confirm the sanction imposed to Eritrea on behalf of Somalia by UNSC was politically motivated than factual or evidence based.”[1]
  • July 9, 2018: PM of Ethiopia visited Eritrea and the two countries agreed to end their 20 year old state of war and signed the following Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship between Eritrea and Ethiopia:
  • Conscious that the peoples of Ethiopia and Eritrea share close bonds of geography, history, culture, language and religion as well as fundamental common interests;
  • Recognizing that over the past decades, they were denied the opportunity to build a bright future for their peoples on the basis of their common heritage;
  • Determined to close this very costly chapter, which also had a detrimental role in the Horn of Africa, and to make up for lost opportunities and create even bigger golden opportunities for their peoples;
  • The governments of Ethiopia and Eritrea have reached the following joint agreement which reflects the desires and aspirations of their peoples:-
  1. The state of war between Ethiopia and Eritrea has come to an end. A new era of peace and friendship has been opened.
  2. The two governments will endeavor to forge intimate political, economic, social, cultural and security cooperation that serves and advances the vital interests of their peoples;
  3. Transport, trade and communications links between the two countries will resume; diplomatic ties and activities will restart;
  4. The decision on the boundary between the two countries will be implemented.
  5. Both countries will jointly endeavor to ensure regional peace, development and cooperation.
  6. Both governments express their gratitude to all friends of Eritrea and Ethiopia and call on them to redouble their solidarity and support.
  • September 5, 2018: Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia issued a Joint Declaration on Comprehensive Cooperation Between Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea stating: considering that the peoples of Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea share close ties of geography, history, culture and religion as well as vital common interests. Respecting each other's independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity; Desiring to bolster their historical ties to achieve their lofty objectives. 1. The three countries shall foster comprehensive cooperation that advances the goals of their peoples. 2. The three countries shall build close political, economic, social, cultural and security ties. 3. The three countries shall work in coordination to promote regional peace and security.Joint Declaration on Comprehensive Cooperation Between Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea
  • September 16, 2018: Eritrea and Ethiopia  agreed on the following in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Considering the close bonds of geography, history, culture and religion between the two countries and their peoples; Respecting each other’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity;
  • Desiring to achieve lasting peace and cement their historical ties to achieve their lofty objectives;
  • Determined to establish comprehensive cooperation on the basis of complementarity and synergy;
  • Determined further to contribute actively to regional and global peace and security;
  • Reaffirming the Joint Declaration on Peace and Friendship that they signed on July 9, 2018 in Asmara;
  • Reiterating their commitment to the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations;

Article One

  • The state of war between the two countries has ended and a new era of peace, friendship and comprehensive cooperation has started.

Article Two

  • The two countries will promote comprehensive cooperation in the political, security, defense, economic, trade, investment, cultural and social fields on the basis of complementarity and synergy.

Article Three

  • The two countries will develop Joint Investment Projects, including the establishment of Joint Special Economic Zones.

Article Four

  • The two countries will implement the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission decision.

Article Five

  • The two countries will promote regional and global peace, security and cooperation.

Article Six

  • The two countries will combat terrorism as well as trafficking in people, arms and drugs in accordance with international covenants and conventions.

Article Seven

  • The two countries will establish a High-Level Joint Committee, as well as Sub-committees as required, to guide and oversee the implementation of this Agreement. Eritrea Ethiopia Jeddah Agreement
  • September 18, 2018: Presidents of Eritrea and Djibouti meet in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia agree to normalize relations.
  • October 12, 2018: Eritrea is elected to the Human Rights Council with 160 votes (Majority required, 97)
  • November 9-10, 208: In a joint statement the leaders of Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, President Mohammed Abdullahi Mahmud (Farmajo) and President Isaias Afwerki held in Bahr Dar, Ethiopia on November 9-10, 2018, issued the following: "The leaders of Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea welcomed the impending lifting of all #sanctions against Eritrea and underscored their conviction that this act of justice would contribute to enhancing peace, development and cooperation in the region."
  • November 14, 2018: The UNSC  expected to lift  the illegal and unfair sanctions imposed on Eritrea. Here are some relevant paragraphs from the draft resolution:
  • Recalls paragraphs 16 and 17 of resolution 1907 (2009) and recognises that during the course of its current and four previous mandates the SEMG has not found conclusive evidence that Eritrea supports Al-Shabaab;
  • Decides to lift from the date of adoption of this resolution the arms embargoes, travel bans, asset freezes and targeted sanctions imposed on Eritrea by the Security Council in its resolutions 1907 (2009) 2023 (2011), 2060 (2012) and 2111 (2013);
  • Expresses its satisfaction that funds derived from the mining sector of Eritrea are not contributing to violations of resolutions 1844 (2008), 1862 (2009), 1907 (2009) or 2023(2011), and decides that from the date of adoption of this resolution, States are no longer required to undertake the measures set out in paragraph 13 of resolution 2023 (2011);



Page  of 8

[1] – Somali Ambassador Idd B. Mohammed, @amb_idd tweet from 7/9/2018